Qora lvinka qurtlarini ishlab chiqarish

Qora lvinka qurtlarini ishlab chiqarish

Ba’zan lyuminestsent chiroqlar ostida havoda kuzatiladigan qora juft lvinkalarning qurtlari. Ba’zan kattalar faqat maxsus yoritish sharoitida juftlashadi, deb xabar berilgan; bizning laboratoriyamizda standart lyuminestsent chiroqlar (24 soatlik fotoperiod) etarli edi.

Qora lvinka qurtlarini ishlab chiqarish
Qora lvinka qurti

Qora lvinka qurtlari ( Hermetia illucens ) lichinkalari (BSF) tezda akvafidlarda baliq ovining alternativi sifatida ozuqaviy qiymati va ekologik toza ishlab chiqarish qobiliyatiga asoslangan holda paydo bo’ladi. 

Voyaga etgan qora  lvinka qurtlari endi butun dunyoga tarqaladi va tashqi ko’rinishiga qaramay, ularga tishlash yoki tishlash uchun qo’shimchalar etishmaydi. Shunday qilib, ular odamlar yoki boshqa hayvonlar uchun zararkunandalar emas va boshqa qurtlar singari, ko’pincha kompost / chirigan organik moddalar yaqinida uchraydi.

Ushbu maqolada BSF lichinkalarini o’z-o’zini yig’ib olish va kattalarni ko’paytirish uchun mo’ljallangan va kattalar BSFni ko’paytirishga oid ba’zi kuzatuvlarni amalga oshirishga mo’ljallangan BSF lichinkalarini ishlab chiqarish uchun “birma-bir” to’plangan tizimi tasvirlangan.

Tuzilishi dizayni va ichki makon sozlamalari

Pine Bluff (UAPB) dagi Arkanzas Universitetida bo’sh joyni qisqartirish va o’rim-yig’imni engillashtirish uchun avvalgi uchuvchi tadqiqotlar asosida temir va mash yordamida BSF lichinkalarini ishlab chiqarish uchun uch bosqichli tizim ishlab chiqilgan va qurilgan (1-rasm). 

Har bir qatlamda chorak dyuymli simli mash ustki qismida substratni ushlab turish / ushlab turish, havo oqimini ta’minlash va ortiqcha suvni to’kib yuborish uchun qo’shimcha mato bor. 

Har bir qatlam trapezoiddir, shuning uchun tekis sirt substratning bir tekis tarqalishiga imkon beradi, 45 graduslik burchak esa lichinkalarning yon tomonlarini siljishi va yig’im-terim mashinasiga (uzun oluk) tushishi uchun sirtini ta’minlaydi.

Chapda: lichinkalarni boqadigan, o’z-o’zini yig’ib oladigan va populyatsiya qilingan (chapda) va jami uchta to’plam UAPBda ishlab chiqarilgan uch qavatli trapezoidal “all-in-one” strukturasining dastlabki dizayni. O’ngda: dizayni uch qatlamli balandlikda jami to’qqiz birlikni taqdim etadi.

Lichinkalar fotofobik (yorug’likka toqat qilmaydigan) bo’lgani uchun, shuningdek, namlikni saqlashga yordam beradiganligi sababli, tortib olinadigan tarp ham joylashtirildi. Yuqori yoriq kelajakdagi kattalar qurtlariga tuxum qo’yishiga imkon beradi. 

To’qqiz birlikning har biri bino ichida ko’chirildi va kech kuz / qish boshida 88 daraja-S belgilangan haroratda saqlandi. Havo shamollatgichi quruq va issiq havoga qarshi turish uchun namlagich namlikni 45 foizdan yuqori darajada ushlab turdi.

Ishlab chiqarishni boshlash

Hammasi bo’lib 9000 lichinka (hasharotlar kabi artropodlarning rivojlanish bosqichi) lichinkalari sotib olingan va to’g’ridan-to’g’ri ishlatilgan kofe maydonchalari yoki pizza xamiri ustiga qo’shilgan.

 Ushbu ingredientlar mahalliy miqyosda mavjud bo’lishiga hamda tarkibi va tuzilishi jihatidan har xil bo’lishiga qarab tanlangan. Biroq, lichinkalarni qo’shgandan bir necha kun o’tgach, lichinkalarning oziq-ovqat mahsulotlariga bo’lgan afzalliklarini aniqlash uchun apelsin, oshqovoq va boshqa uy qoldiqlari, shu jumladan yumshoqroq narsalar tarqatildi (2-rasm). 

Qahva maydalari bilan taqqoslaganda, lichinkalar yumshoqroq oziq-ovqat mahsulotlarini afzal ko’rishgan. Namlik nisbatan yuqori (45 foizdan yuqori) bo’lishiga qaramay, substratlar bir kun ichida quritildi va shu tariqa ertalab bir marta qo’lda yoqilgan mister tizim bilan birga vaqti-vaqti bilan suvni tomizish uchun yuqori qatlamga namlovchi shlang qo’yildi.

Qora lvinka qurtlarini ishlab chiqarish
Qora lvinka qurtlaridan lichinka olish

Chapda: to’g’ridan-to’g’ri pizza xamiri ustiga lichinkalar va tarkibni qo’shish. Yuqorida so’rg’ich shlangi, so’ngra biofiltr vositalaridan foydalanilmagan bir qator “tuxumdonlar” keltirilgan. To’g’ri: lichinkalarni qo’shgandan bir necha kun o’tgach, pizza xamirining ko’p qismi iste’mol qilindi. Keyin apelsin va boshqa yumshoq oziq-ovqat mahsulotlari oziq-ovqat mahsulotlariga bo’lgan imtiyozlarni baholash uchun taqdim etildi.

Bir hafta ichida birinchi qo’g’irchoqbozlar [ba’zi bir hasharotlarning boshqa bosqichlarga o’tishidan oldin hayot davri] lichinkalari 45 daraja yonbag’irlarga ko’tarilib, chorak dyuymli qumga ega bo’lgan truba yig’im-terimiga tushib qolgani kuzatildi, bu esa yumshatishga yordam berdi. zarb, shuningdek, kepak to’rlari bilan yig’ib olishni engillashtirish uchun. 

Qo’g’irchoqdan oldingi lichinkalar pizza xamiriga o’stirilganda (uzunligi 1,75 ± 0,04 sm; kengligi 0,43 ± 0,02 sm) kofe maydonlarida o’stirilganlarga nisbatan (uzunligi 1,27 ± 0,03 sm; kengligi 0,29 ± 0,01 sm) ancha katta bo’lgan, ehtimol xamir yumshoq va oson hazm bo’ladigan kraxmalga boy (3-rasm). Shuni ta’kidlash kerakki, hamma lichinkalar yig’ish uchun ko’chib ketgan emas, aksariyati ko’chib ketgan.

Chapda: 45 graduslik burchak ostida harakatlanib, kuzni yumshatish va hosilni yig’ib olishni osonlashtirish uchun qum bilan chuqurga tushgan pupalar. Dastlabki qo’g’irchoqlarni kuzatishdan uchinchi kun. O’ngda: ekilgan kuklalarni asosan pizza xamiri bilan kofe tarkibiga nisbatan to’g’ridan-to’g’ri taqqoslash.

Voyaga etganlarning ko’payishi

Bir necha kun ichida qo’g’irchoqlar qotib qolishdi, qorong’i bo’lib tuyuldi va kattalar qora  lvinka paydo bo’lguncha uchlari yuqoriga burildi. Tuxumni turli joylarga / inkubatorlarga ko’chirishni osonlashtirish uchun “tuxum” dan foydalanish tavsiya etilgan, tuxum osongina olib tashlanishi va sotuvchilarga sotilishi va substrat aralashtirilishi yoki tuxum bezovta qilmasdan qo’shilishi uchun imkon berishi mumkin.

 Odatda, kartonning gofrirovka qilingan tomonlari, yog’och uyumlari yoki kichik yoriqlari bo’lgan boshqa vositalar kattalar tomonidan afzal ko’riladi. Substrat atrofida yoki ustiga turli xil ommaviy axborot vositalarini joylashtirganimizda, kattalar dastlab tuxumlarini substrat ustiga qo’yishni afzal ko’rishdi (4-rasm). Ikki haftadan so’ng, kartonda birinchi marta tuxumlar paydo bo’ldi (lekin boshqa vositalar emas), bu hidi tuxum qo’yishni tanlash uchun muhimdir.

Dastlab rivojlangan lichinkalarni qo’shganimizdan taxminan ikki oy o’tgach, biz substratda turli xil hayot bosqichlarida qo’g’irchoqlarni kuzatdik (5-rasm), bu hayot tsikli bino ichida va qishda muvaffaqiyatli yopilganligini namoyish etdi. Substrat hidi go’ng / chirigan hiddan ko’proq shirin / tuproq hidiga aylandi. 

Xona kattalar qurtlariga to’lib ketdi, ammo o’lim darajasi to’rt-etti kundan keyin sodir bo’ldi. Keyinchalik, biz xona atrofida oz miqdordagi shakar va suv solingan idishlarni yotqizdik. Qurtlar zudlik bilan bularga, ayniqsa sariq idishlarga tortilib, ovqatlanish uchun uy qurtlariga o’xshash og’izdan foydalangan (6-rasm). Ko’p o’tmay, o’lim holatlari pasayganligi ko’rinib qoldi. 

Bu, ba’zida anekdotlarda aytilganidek, qora  lvinkalarning qurtlari og’iz va ovqat hazm qilish traktlari yo’q degan fikrga qarshi turadi.

To’g’ridan-to’g’ri kofe maydonchasidan (chapda) yoki pizza xamiridan (o’ngda) chiqadigan va o’sadigan lichinkalarning keyingi avlodi. Dastlab lichinkalarni qo’shgan o’sha kuni (taxminan ikki hafta o’tgach) olingan fotosurat va lichinkalarning o’lchamlari aniq ravshan.qora askar chivinlari lichinkalari6-rasm:

Voyaga etgan chivinlar darhol shakarni o’ziga tortdi va petri idishlari yoki oq qovoqlari bilan taqqoslaganda sariq idishni afzal ko’rdi. Qo’shish: Shakar suvini so’rib olish uchun kattalar uchuvchisi labello (shimgichga o’xshash qo’shimchalar) yordamida.

Umumiy ishlab chiqarish

Rivojlangan lichinkalarni dastlabki qo’shilishidan ikki oy o’tgach, biz taxmin qildikki, birinchi avloddan taxminan 50 baravar ko’paygan, u erda ko’plab hovuch lichinkalar olingan (7-rasm). Bu, albatta, tajribalarni tayyorlash uchun substratlarni axlat qutilariga o’tkazgandan keyin aniq bo’ldi. 

Hozirgi vaqtda ushbu ikkinchi avloddan biz BSF lichinkalarining unumdorligi, biokonversiya darajasi va ozuqaviy qiymatini baholash, shuningdek lichinkalarni yig’ish uchun qo’shimcha dizaynlarni sinab ko’rish uchun turli xil mahalliy substrat turlarini va ularning aralashmalarini sinab ko’rmoqdamiz.

Bir avloddan so’ng, bu BSF ning rivojlangan lichinkalariga to’la to’qqiztadan bitta idish edi.

Muammolar va tavsiyalar

Ishlab chiqarish davomida ba’zi bir qiyinchiliklarga issiq / quruq xonada substratning namligini doimiy ravishda saqlash kiradi. Bu, ayniqsa, pizza xamiri uchun juda muhim edi, chunki namlikning etishmasligi xamirning qattiqlashishiga olib keldi, ortiqcha to’yinganligi esa xamirni to’r orqali yo’qotishiga olib keldi. 

Biroq, keyinchalik o’simlik tolalari yoki kofe maydalarini pizza xamiri bilan aralashtirdik va bu tashvishni yumshatdik.Biz kuzatgan yana bir masala shundaki, kattalar ko’pincha tuxumlarini to’g’ridan-to’g’ri substrat ustiga qo’yar edilar va shuning uchun biz substratni aralashtirish / qo’shish hamda substratni suv bilan to’ydirish masalasida ehtiyot bo’ldik. 

Biz BSF kattalarining har qanday joylarda to’kilgan / oqadigan substrat bilan tuxum qo’yishi ehtimolini minimallashtirish uchun pollarni toza saqlash muhimligini ta’kidlaymiz.

105 thoughts on “Qora lvinka qurtlarini ishlab chiqarish”

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